A Guide to Rock Scallop Aquaculture.  By David L. Leighton, Carlsbad Aquaculture Research Institute

A group of Garibaldi size up a sea urchin grazing front invading a kelp bed

Photo by Ron McPeak

Kelp Forests from DesertsBy David L. Leighton   An historical account of studies leading to the development of quickliming as a method to reduce densities of overgrazing sea urchins.  Kelp beds and kelp communities were restored at several locations in southern California in the 1960s.


Hahn, K.O.  1989.  Handbook or Culture of Abalone and other Marine Gastropods.  CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Ino, T.  1952.  Biological studies on the propagation of Japanese abalone (genus
Haliotis).  Bull. Tokai Reg. Fish. Res. Lab. 5(1).

Karpov, K, P. Haaker, I Taniguchi and L. Rogers-Bennett.  2000.  Serial depletion and the collapse of the California abalone fishery.  Canadian Spec. Publ., Fish and Aquatic Sci.  130: 11-24.

Leighton, D.L.  1974.  The influence of temperature on larval and juvenile growth in three species of southern California abalones.  U.S. Dept. Commerce, Fishery Bulletin.  74(4): 1137-1145.

Leighton, D.L.  1989.  Abalone (genus
Haliotis) mariculture on  the North  American Pacific Coast.  U. S. Dept. Commerce, Fishery Bulletin  87:689-702. 

Leighton, D.L.  2000.  The Biology and Culture of the California Abalones.  Dorrance Publishing Co., Pittsburgh, PA    216 pp.

Leighton, D.L., M. Byhower, J. Kelley, N. Hooker  and D. Morse.  1981.  Acceleration of development and growth in young green abalone,
Haliotis fulgens, using warmed effluent seawater.  J. World Maricult. Soc.  12(1): 170-180.

Lundy, A.  1997.  The California Abalone Industry--A Pictorial History.  Best Publ. Co., Flagstaff, Arizona.

Owen, B.S., R. Meyer and J. McLean.  1971.  Hybridization in eastern Pacific abalones (
Haliotis).  Bull. Los Angeles Mus. Nat. Hist., Sci. 9   37 pp.

Rogers-Bennett, L., P. Haaker, T. Huff and P. Dayton. 2002.  Estimating baseline abundances of abalone in California for restoration.  CalCOFI Rep. 43: 97-111.


Natural History
Abalone Aquaculture
Carlsbad Aquafarm
Juvenile Culture